Disclaimer Good reason to check first
Small general aviation airstrips, Flying Doctor (RFDS) airstrips and bush airstrips are mentioned in various CASA and RFDS guides or PPRUNE discussion; there is even a wall poster of them (caution: there are a lot of specific aviation rules to be met in design, and only an airport engineer/inspector has the full knowledge needed to meet all the requirements).
(Very) simple discussion on larger airport design See also the aircraft performance Rules below.
A simple discussion on rigid and flexible pavements, subgrades and the difference between LCN, ACN and the British LCG/LCN is here. The ICAO chart relating ESWL and LCN is here and the UK chart is here. The ICAO values seem to be a bit higher than the UK ones, and are the values that those good folks at Boeing publish. And now an approximate chart to convert LCN to ACN - read the cautions at the top closely because this is not accurate - I got ACN 34 after a detailed calculation from LCN 64 for a multi-wheel aircraft on flexible, and the chart gives 40 - it is only approximate, and included here as a tool to give a ballpark check. The excellent Boeing paper on PCN gives a more accurate method of converting between ACN and LCN.
You can calculate PCN from the equation below (standard subgrade CBRs being 3, 6, 10 and 15), and you can turn the equation around to find so the thickness of pavement needed for a certain PCN [for a 'B' subgrade of CBR 10, thickness = SQRT(75.31 * PCN) cms] [for a 'C' subgrade of CBR 6, thickness = SQRT(133.84 * PCN) cms].
Improvised runways Improvised (and bush) airstrips (more discussion from PPRUNE) and a close-up look at how they get used . Also a CRREL nomogram that can be used to relate very weak (earth, gravel, snow, ice) runways to aircraft weight, tyre pressure and number of passes (caution: only a senior airport pavement engineer has the additional knowledge needed to use this in practice).
Jet blast Take-off thrust discussion (more PPRUNE). Ready to line-up on the piano keys, stand on the brakes and wind 'er up? Or do you allow for the distance travelled while you turn and line-up, then stabilise at breakaway thrust and start the roll and only get full power after 6 seconds? Boeing seems to prefer the rolling take-off as it expedites take-off and reduces the risk of FOD. Check the blast clearance as you try this in your 737-800.
Of course, any runway maintenance work needs to be properly notified. There is a well established system (at least in most countries) of taking facilities out of service. Here's what happens when you don't properly "NOTAM" (notice to airmen) a runway under construction. Late 2004, a C-23 Sherpa flew into a U.S. operated airfield in Iraq during the day and saw there was construction equipment on the runway. Yet there was no NOTAM. A trench was being dug in the runway, and it was not marked. It's a long runway and they just landed beyond the construction. They filed a safety hazard report. Well, it seems the construction continued and still was not marked or NOTAM'ed. A C-130 landed on the runway the night of 29/12/04 and didn't see the construction. It wound up going through a section of runway which was opened up down to the subbase - click here for a look at that. All the bits fell off - click here for that photo. There were several injuries to the crew and the few passengers that were on board but luckily nobody was killed OR what about Centurion's N189AX, on a cargo flight from Miami, overran Bogota's runway 13L (12,460 ft) after reportedly hitting a pothole on the runway, skidding, and here it is.
Madeira What an airport, and what a triumph for Portuguese engineering ! 520 million Euros to build a 1km extension of the runway that looks like an overhead freeway (except it is a runway), standing on concrete piles/pillars 120 metres tall (60 m above and 60 m below sea level). Click here and here for some photos of this amazing feat.
Noise Noise (including ANEF, ANEC, N70 and dBA) mainly from some interesting DoTRS environmental work
Performance Take-off distance calculation discussion and takeoff overspeed V2 (more PPRUNE). Failed to read the discussion? Just got the beast stopped by the piano keys at the far end, accompanied by smoking tyres and screaming pax? Flex triceps, cheated death again, smooth the moustache, adjust oversized genuine gold plated pilot wings and give casual glance at brake temperature gauge. Cold shivers down the spine. Of course if you had carbon brakes, it might be different. For what might be the first time in a public forum, read how carbon brakes work.
Probability Simple discussion on how to calculate the rate of accidents/engine failures etc
Rules The JAA (Joint Aviation Authorities) (of Europe) have a published set of rules covering aircraft performance (JAR-OPS), and have got them online (find them by Google search). The Australian airport rules are their Part 139, and the the UK airport rules are CAP 168. Hopefully one of the rules will suit you. The aircraft design group for the various Boeing aircraft is found here . Note that the European Joint Aviation Authorities (JAA) will ultimately become inactive and the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) will replace them.
Textbooks I'm occasionally asked about books and textbooks covering airports and runways, so here is the list: Textbooks: Airport (and runway)
Towing aircraft. If you need to move a large aircraft in an emergency, we airport engineers thought it was just a case of hooking up the biggest fire engine and letting rip, but we might have underestimated the science involved. Although, for this driver with 320hp on tap, towing science can take a backseat to ARFF brute force. Anyway it beats pushing the thing.
Water runways Here is the pilot expert on water runways.
Ageing 747 aircraft commentary by Arcniz