Bitumen - Australian grade- temperatures
Key temperatures including softening point, rolling temperatures, mixing temperatures. For all Australian grades, multigrades, and PMBs. Click here for that extract from the very useful "AAPA Code of Practice: Manufacture, Storage and Handling of Polymer Modified Binders, 1st edition, June 2004. Melbourne, Victoria."
And when you wanted to know what was in each PMB grade:
If cement or lime-stabilised materials are exposed to air, the hydration products may react with carbon dioxide thereby reducing the strength of the material by an average of 40 per cent of the unconfined compressive strength (Paige-Green et al, 1990). That report is one of the definitive reports on carbonation and is here and it is substantially better than the later (and now thought to be inaccurate) Botha report. Phil Paige-Green presented a later paper on "The Durability of Stabilised Materials", which is easy to read and gives an excellent picture of stabilisation (including durability and carbonation and crushing; this will become a seminal paper in pavement engineering). Carbonation is associated with a decrease in the pH of the material from more than 12 to about 8.5. The form of this distress presents itself after several weeks, usually in the form of surface disintegration of the primed or unprimed layer.
The literature notes several risk factors for carbonation:
Not sealing the road as soon as possible after stabilising (a prime is considered highly permeable and not a seal).
Stabilisation at low cement contents.
Wet/dry cycles in the curing process.
Higher permeability material.
Over-compaction leading to micro-cracking and increased permeability.
A fine grained low plasticity raw material (which in an uncemented state would be considered unsuitable as basecourse).
The testing protocol to find carbonation has already been established by Dr Frank Netterberg Netterberg's carbonation test
GRAVEL QUALITY ANALYSIS FOR UNSEALED ROADS
From the work by Phil Paige-Green of CSIR and published in many places (including TRH20), the gravel quality for unsealed roads can be assessed by simple lab tests. These are used to calculate the gravel material's shrinkage product and grading co-efficient. These are plotted on a simple matrix, and the suitability of the material found. It then indicates the type of distress mechanism, such as erodes, ravels, corrugates, dusty, or slippery. A neat Excel spreadsheet from Darren Shepherd's paper to calculate and plot this is found here . Phil has been awarded the J D Roberts Award for outstanding research & innovation for his work in this field.
Some of the South African test methods are online (well done Barry).
The ones online are in bold - click for them here TMH methods on-line
TMH1: Standard methods of testing road construction materials 1986
TMH2: National standard for the spraying performance of binder distributors 1979
TMH3: Traffic axle load surveys for pavement design 1988
TMH5: Sampling methods for road construction materials 1981
TMH6: Special methods for testing roads (here is the DCP test method)
TMH7: Code of practice for the design of highway bridges and culverts in SA, 3 Parts 1989
TMH9: Pavement management systems: standard visual assessment manual for flexible pavements 1992
TMH10: Manual for the completion of as-build materials data sheets 1993
TMH12: Pavement Management Systems: Standard Visual Assessment Manual for Unsealed Roads 2000